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Sunday, March 04, 2007

Research Paper
EAP2A

How about Biodiesel!

In "Environment: Problems and Solutions,” Miller (1994), writes “Our current dependence on nonrenewable fossil fuels is the primary cause of air and water pollution, land disruption, and projected global warming and climate change; and affordable oil will probably be depleted within 40 to 80 years and will need to be replaced by other alternatives”(p.80). Since industrial revolution in Europe of the 18th century, humans have rapidly increased the quantity of energy consumed, especially fossil energy because it is high-quality energy. In those days, the cost of petroleum was very cheap, and it was not difficult to buy it because early petroleum did not have many uses. However, today, continual industrial’s development has caused much more energy consumption. As a result, fossil energy’s abuse has been brought about serious air pollution as well as an energy scarcity. Lately, possibility of biodiesel as alternative energy for replacement from petroleum diesel is watched by the entire world with interest. In fact, human being should research biodiesel as an alternative energy source of the future to replace fossil energy; biodiesel can reduce environmental problems, economize transportation and energy costs, be made by cultivation without end, and does not generate any new problems in comparison with petro-diesel.

In “Clean vehicles” the author states “Biodiesel is a fuel derived from vegetable oil or animal fats that can be an additive to or entirely replace conventional petroleum diesel fuel” (2005, para.2). The first biodiesel was made by Dr.Rudolf Diesel in 1895. In “Biodiesel” the author tells us “When Dr.Rudolf Diesel demonstrated first diesel engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900, he used 100% peanut oil as fuel. Dr.Diesel originally intended that the diesel engine be fueled by a variety of fuels, including vegetable oil and mineral oil. He promoted the use of vegetable oil as fuel by suggesting that it would greatly benefit the development of agriculture in countries that utilized this potential. The adoption of petroleum –based fuel as the primary fuel for the diesel engine was an arbitrary decision that was largely influenced by the cheaper costs of petroleum at the time”(2004, para.1). These days, most of biodiesel is made from soybean and some biodiesel is made from used cooking oil. This will give human more good influence unlike fossil diesel because it has several positive points.

First, biodiesel is better energy for environment than other energies. It emits less carbon dioxide than conventional diesel. This point is very important because carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming. Therefore, if we use biodiesel instead of petroleum diesel, then, humans do not worry about environment problem any more. In “Biodiesel” the author states “Biodiesel is biodegradable and non-toxic, and typically produces about 60% less net carbon dioxide emissions than petroleum-based diesel”(2007,p.1). Thus, using biodiesel will have good effect to the earth and human. Indeed, biodiesel does not have toxic because it is made by nature. In “Clean Vehicles” states “Biodiesel is non-toxic and biodegrades four times faster than conventional diesel. Biodiesel therefore presents a much smaller risk in the case of spills in marine and other sensitive environments”(2005, para.10). These days, the earth has sufficiently environmental pollution through using fossil energy for a long time. Therefore, human have to try to improve environment for our future.

Second, people who use biodiesel can save transportation cost because it is cheaper price then diesel. Most of all it is best advantage that raw materials of biodiesel can be produced in own country. Countries which do not have an oil field of petroleum have had to import petroleum from countries which have an oil field. It has caused increase of oil price for user because people who use the petroleum pay even cost of import. To make us more miserable if countries that have an oil field have a problem like a war between them, international oil prices will rapidly increase. For example, the first and second oil shock by the Middle East in 1973 and 1979 increased oil price for a short period. In “The Price of Oil-in Context” the author states “the first major oil shock hit the world as Arab nations refused to sell to countries that had expressed support for Israel in the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973. Within a few months, the price of oil went from around $3 a barrel to about $12”(2006, para.5-6). Therefore, biodiesel that can be produced in own country could maintain stable oil cost. Moreover, many countries encourage people to buy biodiesel car on condition of tax free. For instance, Germany gives people who use biodiesel a benefit of free tax. In “A History of Biodiesel/ Biofuels” the author states “In Europe at this time, there is an option for biodiesel in many gas station and vehicles that use diesel are readily available. Over 1000 stations in Germany alone offer biodiesel for their customer. Over 5% of all of France’s energy uses are provided by biodiesel” (2003, para.13). The effort of government will make to can save the money to people by using biodiesel.

Third, biodiesel does not have limit unless human cannot cultivate plant, whereas petroleum-based diesel has a limit because it is made by fossil energy. If human continually uses fossil energy like now without a measure, it will not be far an exhaustion of fossil energy because it needs long time to create new fossil. However, biodiesel is different in comparison with petroleum-based diesel because biodiesel is created from plant or animal fat. In “Using Biodiesel in Vehicles” the author states “Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from domestically grown crops like soybeans and mustard seed” (2006, para.8). Indeed, biodiesel can even be made by used vegetable cooking oil. Ennett (2004) explains “In Hong Kong, plans are afoot to convert diesel cars—which are the most straightforward to change, to vegetable-based fuels, using leftover cooking oil from the city’s many restaurants” (para.12). Biodiesel will not come a limit unless human becomes extinction because human have to grow food to eat every day. Therefore, as long as human use biodiesel in the future, an energy scarcity will not come to human being.

Opponents to replace biodiesel from petro-diesel claim that biodiesel is not good during winter period because it is vegetability. They say high biodiesel content like BD100, using 100% of biodiesel, can stop up the filter of car’s tailpipe by frozen biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by simple fix. In “Biodiesel in Winter” author states “If you car won’t start in the cold a quick fix is to pour hot tap water over the fuel injectors, the fuel pump and the fuel filter (but keep it away from the alternator). This will usually free up a fuel system clogged by gelled fuel sufficiently to start the engine” (n.d. para.12). Also, engine in cold winter can be solved by additive like BD5, mixed 5% biodiesel in the 95% petro-diesel, and BD20, mixed 20% biodiesel in the 80% petro-diesel. It can solve the problem. In addition, using existing diesel cars have same problem in the winter as well. Thus, biodiesel that adds petro-diesel will not generate any new problems for the winter period.

In conclusion, these days, development of industrial know-how requires development of transportations. Also, a lack of fossil energy because of much consumption is encouraging humans to research alternative energy sources such as biodiesel that have more advantage to replace fossil energy for transportation. Therefore, human should use biodiesel as an alternative energy because using biodiesel gives environment good effects through diminution of harmful gas, and it will bring economical richness for people who use biodiesel. In addition, farming to make alternative energy can continually produce biodiesel. Moreover, biodiesel can stand up to comparison with petroleum- based diesel. Humans have a responsibility about the earth because the earth is not ours by reason of living now. Human have to save energy source so that our descendants will live in comfort in the future.

References

A history of biodiesel/biofuels (2003) A History of the Diesel Engine.Retrieved February 21, 2007 from http://www.ybiofuels.org

Biodiesel (2004, March 5) State Environmental Resource Center.Retrieved February 21, 2007 from http://www.serconline.org

Biodiesel in winter (n.d.) Journey to Forever. Retrieved February 20, 2007 from http://journeytoforever.org

Clean Vehicles (2005, September 28) Union of Concerned Scientists.Retrieved February 19, 2007 from http://www.ucsusa.org

Ennett, W (2004,August 31) Vegetables offer oil alternative. CNN. Retrieved February 5, 2007 from http://www.cnn.com

Miller, G.T (1994) Environment: problems and solutions. Belmont: Wadsworth

The price of oil - in context (2006, April 18) CBC news. Retrieved February 28, 2007 from http:// www.cbc.ca

Using biodiesel in vehicles (2006, May 18) U.S. Department of Energy.Retrieved February 21, 2007 from http://www.eere.energy.gov

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Way to Make a Good Teacher

These days, many people think it is not good to evaluate
teacher because students learn humanity as well as a lot of information about subjects from their teachers. However, education has to have much interaction between teacher and student in order to make better educational environment. Thus, student should evaluate their teachers because it will make a good teacher, will give students good effects and may make relation of respect between them.

First, student evaluations would help teachers become better educators. Teachers would know what areas that are teaching subject they need to work on. For example, when I was in high school, I preferred subject of art. Teacher of art subject prepared a paper of estimation for own painting once a week. His painting was evaluated by students’ plain opinions. After that he tried to improve own painting based on result of evaluated from students. Thereafter, he became respected professor in university. Therefore, the evaluation of students will give teachers a good opportunity for self-improvement. Moreover, positive feedback gives confidence to teacher’s educational methods. If teacher receives good grade in evaluation through student, he will have more enthusiasm about own teaching subject. Thus, if, teachers would be held more accountable, it will make it possible to become greater educator.

Second, evaluating teachers would also be good for the students. They realize what makes a good teacher through evaluation. Eccles (n.d.) writes “When others (administration or parents) visit the classroom, the teacher and students are on their best behavior, similar to when our boss observes us at work”(para.2). Thus, if students evaluate their teachers, teachers will try to make more good environments and good behavior; therefore, student can play a good role in making good teachers. In addition, student can give teacher complains on teacher’s method or style, personal grievance. For instance, if teacher gives students wrong information of subject, the student will talk about wrong information when they meet their friends. In this case, it is not good for both teacher and student to not tell teacher incorrect knowledge. Therefore, evaluation by students plays an important role in improvement environment of education.

Finally, student’s evaluation helps to make more friendly relationship between teachers and students. The evaluation may make horizontal relation through evaluation of each other. It is because student also can indicate wrong information to their teachers. If student do not indicate bad teaching style or behavior from teacher, teacher never can know those. Moreover, it will make esteem between teacher and student. For instance, if teacher have a problem like a teaching style, behavior in class, according to Eccles (n.d.) “the teacher could learn techniques that promote a learning atmosphere”(para.2). Therefore, both of them not only will make very good relationship, but also will form relationship, which will help each other.

Opponents of evaluating teachers claim that student should not evaluate their teachers because teacher can lose confidence by negative reaction of students. However, the evaluation is just to improve environment of education, not to lose teacher’s confidence. If teacher receives bad result by students, the teacher must try to change something like a behavior in class time or way of teaching. It does not have disposition to talk about teacher’s confidence. In “Teacher Evaluation and Effectiveness” the author states “teacher evaluation programs must also encourage personal and collegial reflection” (2005,para.4). Thus, through evaluation, teachers have to research good way of education.

In conclusion, student should evaluate their teacher because evaluation by students will provide an opportunity to become good educator to teachers. It also will make good education environment for students. In addition, the evaluation will form intimate relationship through many interactions. It does not give suffering to teachers. Therefore, school should require evaluation of teachers by students.

References

Eccles, C (n.d.) High school students should evaluate their teachers. Retrieved January 29, 2007 from http://www.comportone.com

N.C.T.M (2005,November) Teacher evaluation and effectiveness. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from http://www.nctm.org

What is Real Skill of English?

Most of people who are related with universities believe that the TOEFL test is good way to choose students who have outstanding ability of English. However, even though many international students have a high TOEFL scores, they do not keep up with American students in class. It may cause many problems for the professor as well as student in class. Therefore the TOEFL should not be used to decide if non- native students can be accepted to an American university because the TOEFL test does not require real skill of English, it has many variables such as hardness or ease depending on the day. Also, it cannot measure exact English abilities.

The first of all, the TOEFL does not really tell about English skills. The TOEFL test is very academic source because it does not require English necessary in life. When someone who gets a high score in the TOEFL watches television or movie at home, he may feel that some difficult to understand contents of American movie or drama. Moreover, the TOEFL words are difficult for Americans as well as international students. For example, when I met conversation partner who is from America, I used the TOEFL word ‘sanguinary’, however, she did not understand it. She said “it is a very difficult word and very old word; thus, we do not use this word anymore”. As a result, the TOEFL is not useful in English life. Universities which want TOEFL score have to prepare more proper test than the TOEFL to choose international student.

Moreover, the TOEFL score is different depending on a day. Most of people take a TOEFL test just once a month, thus, a score result is decided in a day. For example, I took a TOEFL test two years ago when I had studied hard for several months. However, my condition was not good at test day because I felt terrible headache. Thus, I received a low score, and then I waited TOEFL test again until next month. Moreover, It is not easy to evaluate English skills through a test because the questions on the TOEFL test are always different. For example, when I took a TOEFL test several years ago, I had a specific experience. I got a 470 grade in first test, and then I studied very hard until next test. Nevertheless, I got a lower score because new test was more difficult than last test. Thus, the TOEFL score is different depending on day. As a result, there is a gap between the TOEFL and English.

Third, the TOEFL is boring and long. Long test time makes concentration go down for students who prepared for a long time. For instance, if someone thinks about something for long time, he or she may feel a pain like a headache or giddiness. Thus, it is not good to have long time in order to take the TOEFL test because students could not have concentration about the test. Moreover, the TOEFL test might be aware as difficult questions to everyone because the contents of TOEFL are not interesting. When we read a long book, it is not boring if the content of book is interesting. However, long test time and boredom will make low score. Consequently, the TOEFL test needs to have more interesting source in order to evaluate exact ability of English.

Opponents of the idea that the TOEFL test should not be used to choose international student claim that the TOEFL test can help to improve English skill. However, this argument does not give a complete answer to learn English skills because TOEFL is test, and most of tests always have a way to answer like a formula of mathematics. For example, if theTOEFL questions sentence of ‘not only’ in grammar part, its answer must be ‘but also’. It is rule of the Toefl. In fact, some people think TOEFL give a time to study, however, people who are studying English should invest many times to speak with foreign people. It is more efficient way in order to improve English skills. Therefore, if universities want to choose having good English skills, they should prepare other standard of selection for student as well as universities.

In conclusion, the TOEFL should not be used to choose international students. People who want to study abroad in America might spend a long time to study the TOEFL; nevertheless, the TOEFL test does not give students help to substantially increase skills of English. The TOEFL test does not demand real capacity of English from student. Besides, the TOEFL uses difficult words and such formal English that student who do not use English in their own countries do not easily to understand English. In addition, student’s TOEFL score is judged by the test for one day in spite of different hardness or ease every day when he takes a TOEFL test. Moreover, the TOEFL test is such a long time that students come down concentration needed for a test time because long test time is very boring. Therefore, the TOEFL test is just test and does not require real skill of English to student. Actually, students who want to admit to university in America need more substantial English skill than useless English as a test like the TOEFL.Therefore, universities should have an alternative plan to choose good student like interview.

Monday, December 11, 2006

Various techniques in Glass art

These days, we can encounter many fields of art craft such as ceramic art, metal smith and glass art. Of all art crafts, many artists have developed the glass art. The glass art need long times to learn technique to make an elaborate work. In addition, the artist has to spend hard time to make a work. Nevertheless, many artists try to learn technique of glass art. Its technique can be classified into three distinct means: kiln work, hot work and cold work.

First, kiln work uses a stove with plaster-molds. It has a history longer than other techniques. We are able to find its origin from ancient Egypt. In old time, they used mud and animal excrements in order to make molds. Today, however, artists use fire-resistant plaster instead of animal excrements and clay. The technique melts solid glass into plaster through a heated stove. Then, according to mold shape, a glass is made by design of artist. After melted, artist has a process for cutting and polishing to finish a work. Through a finish, artist can make a sculpture of glass. Today, the kiln work is common technique to glass artists.

Second, hot work uses a glass of hot state like a liquid. It uses melted glass of 2150 degrees Fahrenheit. Generally, hot work is called “Blowing” in field of glass art because it makes a work by blowing. When artists make a work, they use a pipe, which has a low thermal conduction, to blow a breath. It requires quick actions because liquid glass is dropping down by means of gravity. Hence, it need long times more than a decade to learn the blowing techniques. Artists are able to make a piece of work such as a sculpture as well as flower vase, bottle. Indeed, it has an advantage to finish a work in a short period.

Finally, cold work uses glass of cold state like a stiff solid. It makes a piece of work by using flat glass like a window glass with glue. The technique adhere to flat glasses according to design of artist. After glasses are glued, artist has a time for a cutting and polishing like other techniques because it is one of basics in glass art. Thus, glass works always need its process as a finish. However, it consumes a long time to learn a skill. In addition, it requires much perseverance to make great work. These days, the technique uses several parts of architecture glass as well as only glass art.

In conclusion, these days, glass art has various techniques such as the kiln work, hot work and cold work according to glass states and kinds of glasses. These techniques have a different means to make a work like a using heat stove, blowing melted glass and gluing cold glass. Thus, the techniques require a lot of training of endless efforts. If glass artist have three kinds of skills, they are able to overcome limits of expression for making a work. Therefore, the skills need to make a great work to glass artists. Today, glass arts have been developed from artists who have many techniques. Consequently, glass artists should have a passion and patience to earn a brilliant and admirable work.

Where do you want to Live?

These days, many people think place where we live is not important in life. However, I disagree with their opinions. Good environment of city can give a lot of benefit to residents. City should have low rate population, good public transportation and clean environment in order to make it a great place.

First, a city place has a small population. It is because a small population can help to make calm environment. For example NewYork city and Carbondale in Illinois is good example which is big population and small population. NewYork city has a lot of problems everyday because of high amount of population. Big city which has a lot of people always cause many troubles between people due to confined space. However, Carbondale is small city where it has a small population. In addition, small population would reduce a conflict like traffic accident and narrow parking area between residents. As a result, small population can make calm place.

Second, a good city has comfortable transportations. Even if people have no car, all of citizens can go to everywhere by public transportation in the city. For instance, my hometown, Incheon, Korea is a city near capital, so, Incheon have a very good public transportation such as night bus, metro, etc. Even when I didn’t have a car, I could enjoy weekend out with my wife. We did not feel inconvenience. Good public transportations offer facility of life. Thus, stable transportation makes more plentiful life to human.

Finally, a good city has clean air and water. Clean environment play an important role in keeping health of family. Because a lot of diseases such as a cold and connected with breathing are caused by air pollution. As a result, clean air can protect from environmental diseases. For example, while family members play a something with family in the park, they can enjoy clean air and make a healthy body. Consequently, clean environment can enhance value of life and make a healthy family.

In conclusion, a good city gives human a lot of advantages. Good places have some option such as small population, good transportation and clean air. These things enhance a life’s worth. We should try to make good place for plentiful life.

Praising gifted youngsters may backfire

In the article, “Praising gifted youngsters may backfire”, the author explains how applause affects children who are very smart. First, smart children who are lauded by good result may have difficulty from some problem such as a failure. However, children who are lauded from processing of effort may overcome a problem more easily and smart children. Second, a result which is applause by intelligence can fall down self-esteem. Additionally, children who received applause through effort learn value of action. The author advises that process for success is important more than intelligence result. In my opinion, parents should teach children to sustain effort for aims than result of a natural gift.

First, parents should teach that a result of children’s effort is important for their children. For example, when I was nine years old, I disliked exercise and was obesity. Then, my father advises about run for an hour everyday. Through running with my father,
I have learned the importance of being patient and doing my best for whatever I have to do. Moreover, I have reduced my weight problems.

Second, parents should encourage efforts of children and teach humilities. Even though I have an intelligence about drawing picture, my parents always reached an importance of humility for me because of stopping vanity.

In conclusion, parents or teachers should encourage children who put their effort in what they are doing. As to those youngsters with high intelligence, teaching them to be humble would be important due to children’s passion and future.

Praising gifted youngsters may backfire. (1998, July 13). BBC online network. Retrieved Nov 11, 2006, from http//: www.bbc.co.uk.

Saturday, October 07, 2006

Summary response

In the article “New Views on Video Violence” by Dorothy and Jerome Singer, the authors state that watching violence on television has more negative effects on children than reading aggressive stories. When reading a book, we can create character image by ourselves. Because reading can make another image through own thought. However, television or movies express aggressive images more detail than book without time to think. Thus, watching television or movies can give negative images to children. In addition, very small children have difficult to read a book, so, it is very important to read a book through parents because it gives their children a good influence. In my opinion, watching television can give children influence more badly than reading a book.

First, young children do not form their own thoughts during their childhood. It is very important problem to children. Because children can imitate a movie’s scene without interference after watching action movie. Most of all, childhood is process in order to form judgments of what is correct and incorrect. For example, according to newspaper in Korea, children who watch violent movies or television are apt to imitate crime such as murder between brothers or friends from time to time. It is good example to show the issue. Therefore, watching television is not good for young children who do not form thought.

Second, reading a book plays an important role in order to form thought to growing children. Because reading gives children time to think about a situation. So, children will understand about contents through one. For example, children who had read many books have better comprehension than other does. In addition, they have a creative mind from a reading during their childhood. Thus, reading will give a good effect to growing children.

In conclusion, I think children can receive bad effects from watching television and movies. Because children who are not mature are easily absorb anything that is from the surrounding. Therefore, it is very important for children to contact something new. In addition, reading is good method in order to make right emotion. Thus, reading will give a good effect in order to form one’s values and to make children creative.

Saturday, September 30, 2006

Weblog ASSIGNMENT#5



I visited thesouthern.com site. This site is publishing various information such as regions news, sport, opinion and useful coupon etc. it is an online newspaper, which has other forms. Opening the page, we can see it that is a news item about woman fire fighter. She was first woman firefighter in Carbondale, and she died after she returned to the fire house. Many co-workers who are firefighters and emergency responders attended the funeral. And then, a lot of people who are co-workers said that she is a very responsible and kind person. This site is publishing a news item about her death.

I think firefighter is a very hard work for a woman, because this job is more dangerous than other jobs. Also, it is very hazardous to women as well as men. These days, a lot of women have a chance of occupation which is equal with man. Every man and woman should have a fair opportunity to make the best of himself. Thus, it is very important that one find one's aptitude in working. I think aptitude is more important than who is first when we are hired, because each person have a different ability. So, everyone should have equal opportunity for jobs.


Tuesday, September 26, 2006

Weblog assignment#4


I visited slowlane site. This site offers useful information to stay- at-home dads and their children. It has various information from cooking to artcle that are about fathers. Also we can easily find more information because it is linked to other useful sites. And then it not only offers online sources, but also provides various events to stay- at- home dads. This site is an online place that gives dads convenience.


Lately, in my country, Korea, there is an increase in house-working husbands because of women’s socialization. It is a very rational method for couples who have different ability from each other. They should find suitable jobs for themselves. So, I think this site will help husbands who don’t have house-working experience. A new experience will require help for anyone. we need a lot of advice and experience to take care of children and to cook food for a family. So, I think this site will provide a lot of help to stay-at-home husband.

Tuesday, September 19, 2006

Weblog assignment#3

EU’s gender gap still wide open

I visited BBCsite. This site is another BBC news item which takes news from everywhere online. I read ‘EU’s gender gap still wide open’ in this site. It explains a new policy about the imbalance of genders to take a job in Europe. In many countries in Europe, women have a higher grade education than men. However, women not only get lower pay than men, but also a have lower employment rate than men. So, the institute in Europe will enforce a new policy to improve all of rate that is gender balance.

I think this matter is not a problem of only Europe. Other countries have the same problems in a area of gender balance. In my country, Korea, we have similar problems. Most of all, Asians tend toward paternalism which is centered on the father. So, this matter may be more of anextreme problem than in Europe. In my country, women receive as much education as men, but many women do housework after marriage even now. I think it will require people’s change of heart in order to solve the problem.